Table of Contents

Prologue: Darkness and Light xiii
          Critical Issues Faced by Resource-Poor Women xv
           Who is Worth Studying? xvi
           Turning a Blind Eye to Key Issues xvii

1. Women’s Health, Poverty, and Rights 1
          Women and Poverty 2
           Health Defined 6
           Women and Human Rights: A Slow Dawning 8
           Why Focus on Women? 12

2. From the Beginning, A Deadly Preference 17
          How Do Girls Go Missing? 20
           Demographic Imbalance and its Societal Effects 26
           Signs of Changing Times 27

3. Childhood: The Hope of Education and the Persistence of Discrimination 31
          Unequal Access to Nutrition and Health Care 32
           The Great Hope of Education 33
           A Violent Traditional Practice: Female Genital Mutilation 46
           Other Current Challenges: Child Labor and Trafficking 55

4. Adolescence: Change and Vulnerability 61
           Adolescence: A Time of Change 62
           Early Childbearing and Early Marriage 65
           The Female Face of HIV/AIDS 69

5. The Maternity Death Road: Reproductive and Sexual Health 85
          Reproductive Choice: Women’s Access to Contraception 91
           Safe and Legal Abortion: A Healthy Choice 97
           Sexually Transmitted Infections 103
           The Evolving Field of Reproductive and Sexual Health and Rights 105
           The Reading of the Names 109

6. Violence against Women: Abuse or Terrorism? 111
          The Nature and Prevalence of Domestic Violence Against Women 113
           More Family Violence: “Honor” Killing and Dowry Death 123
           Countercurrents Against the Tide of Domestic Violence 126

7. Women Caught in Conflict and Refugee Situations 133
          The Nature of Present-Day War 134
           The Devastating Effects of War on Women 137
           The Breakout of Conflict 138
           Flight and Forced Migration 141
           Unequal Access to Safe Haven 145
           Life in a Refugee Camp 146
           The Aftermath of Conflict 152

8. Laboring in a Globalized World 159
          Women’s Work: Unrecognized and Undervalued 160
           Measuring Work: Not! 161
           Informal “Paid” Work 162
           Globalization: Boon or Bane for Women? 164
           Moving to the City for Pay 172
           Sex Trafficking 175
           Sex Work by Choice 187
           Taking Action 190

9. Aging in a Man’s World 193
          Demographics and the Feminization of Aging 194
           What Does it Mean to Be Elderly? 196
           A Lifetime of Work 197
           Older Women as Caregivers 200
           Health Consequences of a Lifetime of Work 203
           Social Exclusion and Loss 204
           Characteristics of Older Women in Poorer Countries 209
           Hopeful Signs 210

10. Turning the World Rightside Up 215
          The Global Women’s Movement 216
           From Development to Human Rights to Paradigm Change 217
           The Nature of Feminist Activism 220

Endnotes 227

Bibliography 249

Some Useful Resources 277

Gratitudes and a Personal Note 285

Permissions 288

Index 289

About the Author 311

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